Each bishop is assigned to a cathedral from which he is pastor to the people of his diocese. The cathedral is the primary church of a diocese. Although the bishop, generally, presides at the more solemn liturgies in this church, the day to day head of the cathedral parish is its rector--equivalent to pastor. Father Andrew Ricci has been the rector of the cathedral since 2009.
In the canon law of the Catholic Church the relationship of the bishop to his cathedral is often compared to the relationship of a parish priest to the parochial church. Both are pastors over an area (the diocese for the bishop and the parish for the parish priest) and both are rectors over a building (the cathedral for the bishop and the parish church for the pastor).
The cathedral is where we find the bishop's throne, or cathedra, (which is the Latin word for "seat" or "chair"). In the ancient world, the chair was the symbol of a teacher and thus of the bishop's role as teacher, and also of an official presiding as a magistrate and thus of the bishop's role in governing a diocese. In other words, the seat marks the place set aside in the prominent church of the diocese for the head of that diocese and is therefore a major symbol of authority.
Originally the miter (also spelled mitre) was a simple cap made of soft material, terminating in a peak with a string on each side to fasten it to the wearer’s head when traveling about. By the 10th century, it took the form known to us today and its use was limited to liturgical ceremonies. At first the miter was used exclusively by the pope as a mark of distinction, but by the 12th century its use was extended to all bishops as a mark of their office and a symbol of their authority. Today, bishops are invested with a miter during their ordination ceremony.
The crosier or pastoral staff takes it shape from the crook used by shepherds. In the 5th century it became customary for the pope to carry a wooden staff in processions. By the 6th century, all bishops acquired the custom of carrying a staff as an outward sign of their ministry as shepherds of God’s people. In later centuries, pastoral staffs were crafted from precious metals and decorated with jewels. Today, the bishop is presented with a crosier to be used at liturgical services. It is carried by the bishop of the diocese only as a sign of his jurisdiction, a sign that is indeed his flock.
Originally worn by the pope and known as the “Fisherman’s Ring,” its purpose was to link the ministry of the pope with ministry of St. Peter the Apostle. By the 11th century, all bishops adopted the custom as a reminder of their participation in the ministry of the Apostles. The ring is a sign of the bishop’s fidelity to and nuptial bond with the Church, his spouse. The material and style of the ring is the choice of the individual bishop. It is presented to him at his ordination to be worn at all time as a visible sign of this apostolic ministry.
The pectoral cross is worn by the pope, cardinals, bishops and abbots. It is worn over the breast (pectus) of the wearer. The pectoral cross reflects the order of dignity of the office of bishop or abbot. It served originally as a reliquary of the True Cross, which encouraged the custom of wearing this cross close to the breast. The bishop assumes the cross upon his ordination and wears this cross either suspended from a ceremonial cord at liturgical services or on a chain with his clerical suit.
The zucchetto, or skullcap as it is sometimes called, is part of the liturgical and choir cress of the pop, cardinals, bishops, abbots and priests. It was developed to cover the tonsure (part of the back of the head that is shaved as a man entered into the clerical state.) It is worn during liturgical and some non-liturgical function and it is removed during the liturgy at the Holy, Holy, Holy, so that the head might not be covered in the presence of The Blessed Sacrament.
SOURCE: Information adapted from the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops website.